Metabolic Disorders

Obesity/Weight loss

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

  1. Willems AEM, Sura–de Jong M, van Beek AP, Nederhof E, van Dijk G. Effects of macronutrient intake in obesity: a meta-analysis of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on markers of the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Rev. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuaa044
  2. Sievert K, Hussain SM, Page MJ, et al. Effect of breakfast on weight and energy intake: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2019;364:l42. doi:10.1136/bmj.l42
  3. Choi YJ, Jeon S-M, Shin S. Impact of a Ketogenic Diet on Metabolic Parameters in Patients with Obesity or Overweight and with or without Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):2005. doi:10.3390/nu12072005
  4. Mansoor N, Vinknes KJ, Veierød MB, Retterstøl K. Effects of low-carbohydrate diets v. low-fat diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2016;115(3):466-479. doi:10.1017/S0007114515004699
  5. Sackner-Bernstein J, Kanter D, Kaul S. Dietary Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adults: Comparison of Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets. A Meta-Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(10):e0139817. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139817
  6. Bueno NB, de Melo ISV, de Oliveira SL, da Rocha Ataide T. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(7):1178-1187. doi:10.1017/S0007114513000548
  7. Ludwig DS, Dickinson SL, Henschel B, Ebbeling CB, Allison DB. Do Lower-Carbohydrate Diets Increase Total Energy Expenditure? An Updated and Reanalyzed Meta-Analysis of 29 Controlled-Feeding Studies. J Nutr. doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa350
  8. Amini MR, Aminianfar A, Naghshi S, Larijani B, Esmaillzadeh A. The effect of ketogenic diet on body composition and anthropometric measures: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Published online January 14, 2021:1-14. doi:10.1080/10408398.2020.1867957
  9. Lee HS, Lee J. Effects of Combined Exercise and Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Interventions on Waist Circumference and Triglycerides in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(2):828. doi:10.3390/ijerph18020828
  10. Castellana M, Conte E, Cignarelli A, et al. Efficacy and safety of very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) in patients with overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. November 2019. doi:10.1007/s11154-019-09514-y ABSTRACT
  11. Drabińska N, Wiczkowski W, Piskuła MK. Recent advances in the application of a ketogenic diet for obesity management. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2021;110:28-38. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2021.01.080

Trials/Studies

  1. Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Klein GL, et al. Effects of a low carbohydrate diet on energy expenditure during weight loss maintenance: randomized trial. BMJ. 2018;363:k4583. doi:10.1136/bmj.k4583
  2. Goss AM, Gower B, Soleymani T, et al. Effects of weight loss during a very low carbohydrate diet on specific adipose tissue depots and insulin sensitivity in older adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2020;17(1):64. doi:10.1186/s12986-020-00481-9
  3. Röhling M, Martin K, Ellinger S, Schreiber M, Martin S, Kempf K. Weight Reduction by the Low-Insulin-Method—A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):3004. doi:10.3390/nu12103004
  4. Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, et al. Weight Loss with a Low-Carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or Low-Fat Diet. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;359(3):229-241. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0708681
  5. Aude YW, Agatston AS, Lopez-Jimenez F, et al. The national cholesterol education program diet vs a diet lower in carbohydrates and higher in protein and monounsaturated fat: a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(19):2141-2146. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.19.2141
  6. Brinkworth GD, Noakes M, Buckley JD, Keogh JB, Clifton PM. Long-term effects of a very-low-carbohydrate weight loss diet compared with an isocaloric low-fat diet after 12 mo. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):23-32. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2008.27326
  7. Volek J, Sharman M, Gómez A, et al. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2004;1(1):13. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-1-13
  8. Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(21):2074-2081. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022637
  9. Garr Barry V, Stewart M, Soleymani T, Desmond RA, Goss AM, Gower BA. Greater Loss of Central Adiposity from Low-Carbohydrate versus Low-Fat Diet in Middle-Aged Adults with Overweight and Obesity. Nutrients. 2021;13(2):475. doi:10.3390/nu13020475
  10. Walker L, Smith N, Delon C. Weight loss, hypertension and mental well-being improvements during COVID-19 with a multicomponent health promotion programme on Zoom: a service evaluation in primary care. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. Published online February 13, 2021:bmjnph. doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000219   PDF
  11. Paoli A, Bianco A, Grimaldi KA, Lodi A, Bosco G. Long term successful weight loss with a combination biphasic ketogenic Mediterranean diet and Mediterranean diet maintenance protocol. Nutrients. 2013;5(12):5205-5217. doi:10.3390/nu5125205
  12. Gomez-Arbelaez D, Crujeiras AB, Castro AI, et al. Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018;15. doi:10.1186/s12986-018-0249-z
  13. Ebbeling CB, Bielak L, Lakin PR, et al. Energy Requirement Is Higher During Weight-Loss Maintenance in Adults Consuming a Low- Compared with High-Carbohydrate Diet. J Nutr. 2020;150(8):2009-2015. doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa150

  14. Keith L, Rowsemitt C, Richards LG. Lifestyle Modification Group for Lymphedema and Obesity Results in Significant Health Outcomes. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2017;14(4):420-428. doi:10.1177/1559827617742108
  15. O’Driscoll T, Minty R, Poirier D, et al. New obesity treatment: Fasting, exercise and low carb diet – The NOT-FED study. Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine. 2021;26(2):55. doi:10.4103/CJRM.CJRM_1_20
  16. Buga A, Kackley ML, Crabtree CD, et al. The Effects of a 6-Week Controlled, Hypocaloric Ketogenic Diet, With and Without Exogenous Ketone Salts, on Body Composition Responses. Front Nutr. 2021;8. doi:10.3389/fnut.2021.618520

Women

  1. Michalczyk MM, Klonek G, Maszczyk A, Zajac A. The Effects of a Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Glycaemic Control Variables in Hyperinsulinemic Overweight/Obese Females. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1854. doi:10.3390/nu12061854
  2. Kong Z, Sun S, Shi Q, Zhang H, Tong TK, Nie J. Short-Term Ketogenic Diet Improves Abdominal Obesity in Overweight/Obese Chinese Young Females. Front Physiol. 2020;11. doi:10.3389/fphys.2020.00856
  3. Hutchison AT, Liu B, Wood RE, et al. Effects of Intermittent Versus Continuous Energy Intakes on Insulin Sensitivity and Metabolic Risk in Women with Overweight. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2019;27(1):50-58. doi:10.1002/oby.22345 PDF
  4. Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al. Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2007;297(9):969-977. doi:10.1001/jama.297.9.969 
  5. Brehm BJ, Spang SE, Lattin BL, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D’Alessio DA. The role of energy expenditure in the differential weight loss in obese women on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(3):1475-1482. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1540
  6. Aronica L, Rigdon J, Offringa LC, Stefanick ML, Gardner CD. Examining differences between overweight women and men in 12-month weight loss study comparing healthy low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat diets. International Journal of Obesity. Published online November 14, 2020:1-10. doi:10.1038/s41366-020-00708-y
  7. Triffoni-Melo A de T, Dick-de-Paula I, Portari GV, Jordao AA, Garcia Chiarello P, Diez-Garcia RW. Short-term carbohydrate-restricted diet for weight loss in severely obese women. Obes Surg. 2011;21(8):1194-1202. doi:10.1007/s11695-010-0110-6 ABSTRACT
  8. Arbour MW, Stec M, Walker KC, Wika JC. Clinical Implications for Women of a Low-Carbohydrate or Ketogenic Diet With Intermittent Fasting. Nursing for Women’s Health. 2021;25(2):139-151. doi:10.1016/j.nwh.2021.01.009 ABSTRACT

Adolescents/Children

  1. Kirk S, Brehm B, Saelens BE, et al. Role of Carbohydrate Modification in Weight Management among Obese Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2012;161(2):320-327.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.01.041 PDF
  2. Sondike SB, Copperman N, Jacobson MS. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. J Pediatr. 2003;142(3):253-258. doi:10.1067/mpd.2003.4   PDF
  3. Krebs NF, Gao D, Gralla J, Collins JS, Johnson SL. Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. J Pediatr. 2010;157(2):252-258. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.02.010   PDF
  4. Pauley M, Mays C, Bailes JR, et al. Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet: A Successful Strategy for Short-Term Management in Youth with Severe Obesity—An Observational Study. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. Published online February 9, 2021. doi:10.1089/met.2020.0078
  5. Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski SM, et al. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(2):453-460. doi:10.1002/oby.21371
  6.  Stoica RA, Diaconu CC, Rizzo M, et al. Weight loss programmes using low carbohydrate diets to control the cardiovascular risk in adolescents (Review). Exp Ther Med. 2021;21(1). doi:10.3892/etm.2020.9522
  7. Cakmak HM, IlknurArslanoglu, Sungur MA, Bolu S. Clinical Picture at Attendance and Response to Flexible FamilyBased Low-Carb Life Style Change in Children With Obesity. IJCHN. 2021;10(1):9-16. doi:10.6000/1929-4247.2021.10.01.2     PDF

Fasting and weight loss

  1. Yan S, Wang C, Zhao H, et al. Effects of fasting intervention regulating anthropometric and metabolic parameters in subjects with overweight or obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Food Funct. Published online April 27, 2020. doi:10.1039/D0FO00287A
  2. Harris L, Hamilton S, Azevedo LB, et al. Intermittent fasting interventions for treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2018;16(2):507-547. doi:10.11124/JBISRIR-2016-003248
  3. Cioffi I, Evangelista A, Ponzo V, et al. Intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss and cardiometabolic outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2018;16(1):371. doi:10.1186/s12967-018-1748-4
  4. Welton S, Minty R, O’Driscoll T, et al. Intermittent fasting and weight loss: Systematic review. Canadian Family Physician. 2020;66(2):117-125.
  5. Trepanowski JF, Kroeger CM, Barnosky A, et al. Effect of Alternate-Day Fasting on Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Cardioprotection Among Metabolically Healthy Obese Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(7):930-938. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.0936 
  6. Aksungar FB, Sarıkaya M, Coskun A, Serteser M, Unsal I. Comparison of Intermittent Fasting Versus Caloric Restriction in Obese Subjects: A Two Year Follow-Up. J Nutr Health Aging. 2017;21(6):681-685. doi:10.1007/s12603-016-0786-y ABSTRACT  
  7. Catenacci VA, Pan Z, Ostendorf D, et al. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(9):1874-1883. doi:10.1002/oby.21581 PDF
  8. Varady KA, Bhutani S, Klempel MC, et al. Alternate day fasting for weight loss in normal weight and overweight subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 2013;12:146. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-12-146  
  9. Kalam F, Gabel K, Cienfuegos S, et al. Alternate day fasting combined with a low‐carbohydrate diet for weight loss, weight maintenance, and metabolic disease risk reduction. Obes Sci Pract. 2019;5(6):531-539. doi:10.1002/osp4.367
  10. Klempel MC, Bhutani S, Fitzgibbon M, Freels S, Varady KA. Dietary and physical activity adaptations to alternate day modified fasting: implications for optimal weight loss. Nutrition Journal. 2010;9(1):35. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-35  
  11. Li C, Ostermann T, Hardt M, et al. Metabolic and Psychological Response to 7-Day Fasting in Obese Patients with and without Metabolic Syndrome. CMR. 2013;20(6):413-420. doi:10.1159/000353672   
  12. Klempel MC, Kroeger CM, Bhutani S, Trepanowski JF, Varady KA. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women. Nutrition Journal. 2012;11(1):98. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-98   
  13. Rynders CA, Thomas EA, Zaman A, Pan Z, Catenacci VA, Melanson EL. Effectiveness of Intermittent Fasting and Time-Restricted Feeding Compared to Continuous Energy Restriction for Weight Loss. Nutrients. 2019;11(10):2442. doi:10.3390/nu11102442
  14. Domaszewski P, Konieczny M, Pakosz P, Bączkowicz D, Sadowska-Krępa E. Effect of a Six-Week Intermittent Fasting Intervention Program on the Composition of the Human Body in Women over 60 Years of Age. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(11):4138. doi:10.3390/ijerph17114138

Metabolic Syndrome/Pre-diabetes/Insulin Resistance

Systematic Reviews, Meta-analyses and Narrative reviews 

  1. de Menezes EVA, Sampaio HA de C, Carioca AAF, et al. Influence of Paleolithic diet on anthropometric markers in chronic diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition Journal. 2019;18(1):41. doi:10.1186/s12937-019-0457-z
  2. Sohouli MH, Fatahi S, Lari A, et al. The effect of paleolithic diet on glucose metabolism and lipid profile among patients with metabolic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. Published online January 25, 2021:1-12. doi:10.1080/10408398.2021.1876625 ABSTRACT
  3. Manheimer EW, van Zuuren EJ, Fedorowicz Z, Pijl H. Paleolithic nutrition for metabolic syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(4):922-932. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.113613   
  4. Castro-Barquero S, Ruiz-León AM, Sierra-Pérez M, Estruch R, Casas R. Dietary Strategies for Metabolic Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review. Nutrients. 2020;12(10). doi:10.3390/nu12102983
  5. Hoyas I, Leon-Sanz M. Nutritional Challenges in Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019;8(9):1301. doi:10.3390/jcm8091301 
  6. Shemirani F, Golzarand M, Salari-Moghaddam A, Mahmoudi M. Effect of low-carbohydrate diet on adiponectin level in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2021;0(0):1-10. doi:10.1080/10408398.2021.1871588 ABSTRACT

Trials/Studies

  1. Stentz FB, Brewer A, Wan J, et al. Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2016;4(1). doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000258
  2. McKenzie AL, Athinarayanan SJ, McCue JJ, et al. Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Focused on Normalization of Glycemia: A Two-Year Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2021;13(3):749. doi:10.3390/nu13030749
  3. Unwin DJ, Tobin SD, Murray SW, Delon C, Brady AJ. Substantial and Sustained Improvements in Blood Pressure, Weight and Lipid Profiles from a Carbohydrate Restricted Diet: An Observational Study of Insulin Resistant Patients in Primary Care. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019;16(15):2680. doi:10.3390/ijerph16152680  
  4. Hyde PN, Sapper TN, Crabtree CD, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves metabolic syndrome independent of weight loss. JCI Insight. 2019;4(12). doi:10.1172/jci.insight.128308  
  5.  Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski SM, et al. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(2):453-460. doi:10.1002/oby.21371
  6. Maekawa S, Kawahara T, Nomura R, et al. Retrospective study on the efficacy of a low-carbohydrate diet for impaired glucose tolerance. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2014;7:195-201. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S62681
  7. Pérez-Guisado J, Muñoz-Serrano A. A Pilot Study of the Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet: An Effective Therapy for the Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011;14(7-8):681-687. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.0137    PDF
  8. Griauzde DH, Saslow L, Patterson K, et al. Mixed methods pilot study of a low-carbohydrate diabetes prevention programme among adults with pre-diabetes in the USA. BMJ Open. 2020;10(1). doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033397 
  9. Gershuni VM, Yan SL, Medici V. Nutritional Ketosis for Weight Management and Reversal of Metabolic Syndrome. Curr Nutr Rep. 2018;7(3):97-106. doi:10.1007/s13668-018-0235-0 
  10. Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. A Low-Carbohydrate as Compared with a Low-Fat Diet in Severe Obesity. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(21):2074-2081. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022637
  11. Yost O, DeJonckheere M, Stonebraker S, et al. Continuous Glucose Monitoring With Low-Carbohydrate Diet Coaching in Adults With Prediabetes: Mixed Methods Pilot Study. JMIR Diabetes. 2020;5(4):e21551. doi:10.2196/21551
  12. Nakagata T, Tamura Y, Kaga H, et al. Ingestion of an Exogenous Ketone Monoester Improves the Glycemic Response during Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in Subjects with Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Crossover Randomized Trial. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. n/a(n/a). doi:10.1111/jdi.13423 
  13. Cucuzzella MT, Tondt J, Dockter NE, Saslow L, Wood TR. A low-carbohydrate survey: Evidence for sustainable metabolic syndrome reversal. Journal of Insulin Resistance. 2017;2(1):25. doi:10.4102/jir.v2i1.30
  14. Gibas MK, Gibas KJ. Induced and controlled dietary ketosis as a regulator of obesity and metabolic syndrome pathologies. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2017;11:S385-S390. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2017.03.022 ABSTRACT
  15. Lee C-L, Liu W-J, Wang J-S. Associations of low-carbohydrate and low-fat intakes with all-cause mortality in subjects with prediabetes with and without insulin resistance. Clinical Nutrition. 2020;0(0). doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.12.019 ABSTRACT
  16. Saenz C, Hooper S, Orange T, et al. Effect of a Free-Living Ketogenic Diet on Feasibility, Satiety, Body Composition, and Metabolic Health in Women: The Grading Level of Optimal Carbohydrate for Women (GLOW) Study. J Am Coll Nutr. Published online March 11, 2021:1-12. doi:10.1080/07315724.2021.1875338 ABSTRACT
  17. Bharmal SH, Cho J, C Alarcon Ramos G, Ko J, Cameron-Smith D, Petrov MS. Acute Nutritional Ketosis and Its Implications for Plasma Glucose and Glucoregulatory Peptides in Adults with Prediabetes: A Crossover Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial. The Journal of Nutrition. 2021;151(4):921-929. doi:10.1093/jn/nxaa417 ABSTRACT

Type 2 Diabetes

Systematic Reviews, Meta-analyses and Narrative reviews 

  1. Yuan X, Wang J, Yang S, et al. Effect of the ketogenic diet on glycemic control, insulin resistance, and lipid metabolism in patients with T2DM: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutrition & Diabetes. 2020;10(1):1-8. doi:10.1038/s41387-020-00142-z
  2. Meng Y, Bai H, Wang S, Li Z, Wang Q, Chen L. Efficacy of low carbohydrate diet for type 2 diabetes mellitus management: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2017;131:124-131. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2017.07.006 ABSTRACT
  3. Alarim RA, Alasmre FA, Alotaibi HA, Alshehri MA, Hussain SA. Effects of the Ketogenic Diet on Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients: Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Cureus. 12(10). doi:10.7759/cureus.10796
  4. Turton J, Brinkworth GD, Field R, Parker H, Rooney K. An evidence‐based approach to developing low‐carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management: a systematic review of interventions and methods. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. doi:10.1111/dom.13837
  5. Snorgaard O, Poulsen GM, Andersen HK, Astrup A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary carbohydrate restriction in patients with type 2 diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017;5(1):e000354. doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2016-000354
  6. Ajala O, English P, Pinkney J. Systematic review and meta-analysis of different dietary approaches to the management of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97(3):505-516. doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.042457
  7. Goldenberg JZ, Day A, Brinkworth GD, et al. Efficacy and safety of low and very low carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes remission: systematic review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished randomized trial data. BMJ. 2021;372:m4743. doi:10.1136/bmj.m4743
  8. Kelly T, Unwin D, Finucane F. Low-Carbohydrate Diets in the Management of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: A Review from Clinicians Using the Approach in Practice. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(7):2557. doi:10.3390/ijerph17072557
  9. Hallberg SJ, Gershuni VM, Hazbun TL, Athinarayanan SJ. Reversing Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review of the Evidence. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):766. doi:10.3390/nu11040766
  10. Feinman RD, Pogozelski WK, Astrup A, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: Critical review and evidence base. Nutrition. 2015;31(1):1-13. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011
  11. Huntriss R, Campbell M, Bedwell C. The interpretation and effect of a low-carbohydrate diet in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018;72(3):311-325. doi:10.1038/s41430-017-0019-4  ABSTRACT
  12. Valenzuela Mencía J, Fernández Castillo R, Martos Cabrera MB, Gómez-Urquiza JL, Albendín García L, Cañadas de la Fuente GA. Diets low in carbohydrates for type 2 diabetics. Systematic review. Nutr Hosp. 2017;34(1):224-234. doi:10.20960/nh.999 ABSTRACT
  13. Locatelli CAA, Mulvihill EE. Islet Health, Hormone Secretion, and Insulin Responsivity with Low-Carbohydrate Feeding in Diabetes. Metabolites. 2020;10(11):455. doi:10.3390/metabo10110455

Trials/Studies

  1. Tay J, Thompson CH, Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al. Effects of an energy-restricted low-carbohydrate, high unsaturated fat/low saturated fat diet versus a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet in type 2 diabetes: A 2-year randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2018;20(4):858-871. doi:10.1111/dom.13164
  2. Saslow LR, Daubenmier JJ, Moskowitz JT, et al. Twelve-month outcomes of a randomized trial of a moderate-carbohydrate versus very low-carbohydrate diet in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes. Nutr Diabetes. 2017;7(12):304. doi:10.1038/s41387-017-0006-9
  3. Goday A, Bellido D, Sajoux I, et al. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutr Diabetes. 2016;6(9):e230. doi:10.1038/nutd.2016.36
  4. Tay J, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Thompson CH, et al. Comparison of low- and high-carbohydrate diets for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(4):780-790. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.112581
  5. Tay J, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Thompson CH, et al. A very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated fat diet for type 2 diabetes management: a randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(11):2909-2918. doi:10.2337/dc14-0845
  6. Chen C-Y, Huang W-S, Chen H-C, et al. Effect of a 90 g/day low-carbohydrate diet on glycaemic control, small, dense low-density lipoprotein and carotid intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic patients: An 18-month randomised controlled trial. PLOS ONE. 2020;15(10):e0240158. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0240158
  7. Thomsen MN, Skytte MJ, Astrup A, et al. The clinical effects of a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet on glycaemic variability in metformin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomised controlled study. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN. Published online August 1, 2020. doi:10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.07.002 ABSTRACT
  8. Yamada Y, Uchida J, Izumi H, et al. A Non-calorie-restricted Low-carbohydrate Diet is Effective as an Alternative Therapy for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Internal Medicine. 2014;53(1):13-19. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.53.0861
  9. Athinarayanan SJ, Adams RN, Hallberg SJ, et al. Long-Term Effects of a Novel Continuous Remote Care Intervention Including Nutritional Ketosis for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes: A 2-Year Non-randomized Clinical Trial. Front Endocrinol. 2019;10. doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00348 
  10. McKenzie A, Athinarayanan S, Adams R, Volek J, Phinney S, Hallberg S. SUN-LB113 A Continuous Remote Care Intervention Utilizing Carbohydrate Restriction Including Nutritional Ketosis Improves Markers of Metabolic Risk and Reduces Diabetes Medication Use in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Over 3.5 Years. J Endocr Soc. 2020;4(Supplement_1). doi:10.1210/jendso/bvaa046.2302
  11. Guldbrand H, Lindström T, Dizdar B, et al. Randomization to a low-carbohydrate diet advice improves health related quality of life compared with a low-fat diet at similar weight-loss in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;106(2):221-227. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.08.032
  12. Nielsen JV, Joensson EA. Low-carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes: stable improvement of bodyweight and glycemic control during 44 months follow-up. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2008;5(1):14. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-5-14
  13. Moriconi E, Camajani E, Fabbri A, Lenzi A, Caprio M. Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet as a Safe and Valuable Tool for Long-Term Glycemic Management in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2021;13(3):758. doi:10.3390/nu13030758
  14. Romano L, Marchetti M, Gualtieri P, et al. Effects of a Personalized VLCKD on Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in the Reversal of Diabetes to Prevent Complications. Nutrients. 2019;11(7):1526. doi:10.3390/nu11071526
  15. Walton CM, Perry K, Hart RH, Berry SL, Bikman BT. Improvement in Glycemic and Lipid Profiles in Type 2 Diabetics with a 90-Day Ketogenic Diet. Journal of Diabetes Research. doi:10.1155/2019/8681959
  16. Taylor PJ, Thompson CH, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Wycherley TP, Wittert G, Brinkworth GD. Efficacy of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring to Improve Effects of a Prescriptive Lifestyle Intervention in Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study. Diabetes Ther. 2019;10(2):509-522. doi:10.1007/s13300-019-0572-z
  17. Ahmed SR, Bellamkonda S, Zilbermint M, Wang J, Kalyani RR. Effects of the low carbohydrate, high fat diet on glycemic control and body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes: experience from a community-based cohort. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020;8(1). doi:10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000980
  18. Govers E, Otten A, Schuiling B, Bouwman W, Visscher T. Effectiveness of the 6 × 6 Dieet® in Obese DMT2 Patients Effectiveness of a Very Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Compared to a Low Carbohydrate and Energy-Restricted Diet in Overweight/Obese Type 2 Diabetes Patients. September 2019. doi:10.16966/2380-548X.158
  19. Saboo B, Phatak S, Jethwani P, Patel R, Hasnani D, Panchal D, Shah S, Raval V, Dave R, Mishra A. Intervention of a personalized low-carbohydrate diet to reduce HbA1c level and weight in patients with Type 2 diabetes using seed-based flour as replacement for high-carbohydrate flour and foods. J Diabetol 2021;12:196-200. doi: 10.4103/jod.jod_74_20 
  20. Govers E, Visscher TLS, Bouwman W, Lourens A, Schuilinga B, Otten A. Carbohydrate Content of Diet Determines Success in Type 2 Diabetes Outcomes. Metabolism – Clinical and Experimental. 2021;116. doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154591
  21. Banholzer N, Herzig D, Piazza C, et al. Effect of nutrition on postprandial glucose control in hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes receiving fully automated closed-loop insulin therapy. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism. 2020(n/a). doi:10.1111/dom.14187
  22. Laza-Cagigas R, Chan S, Sumner D, Rampal T. Effects and feasibility of a prehabilitation programme incorporating a low-carbohydrate, high-fat dietary approach in patients with type 2 diabetes: A retrospective study. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14(3):257-263. doi:10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.010 ABSTRACT
  23. Iwasaki K. Low carbohydrate diet rescued severe type 2 diabetes patient from insulin injection, a case report. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care. 2021;10(1):550. doi:10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1798_20

Fasting and Type 2 Diabetes

  1. Borgundvaag E, Mak J, Kramer CK. Metabolic impact of intermittent fasting in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Published online December 15, 2020. doi:10.1210/clinem/dgaa926
  2. Albosta M, Bakke J. Intermittent fasting: is there a role in the treatment of diabetes? A review of the literature and guide for primary care physicians. Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology. 2021;7(1):3. doi:10.1186/s40842-020-00116-1
  3. Grajower MM, Horne BD. Clinical Management of Intermittent Fasting in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):873. doi:10.3390/nu11040873
  4. Furmli S, Elmasry R, Ramos M, Fung J. Therapeutic use of intermittent fasting for people with type 2 diabetes as an alternative to insulin. Case Reports. 2018;2018:bcr-2017-221854. doi:10.1136/bcr-2017-221854  
  5. Li C, Sadraie B, Steckhan N, et al. Effects of A One-week Fasting Therapy in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome – A Randomized Controlled Explorative Study. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017;125(9):618-624. doi:10.1055/s-0043-101700 ABSTRACT
  6. Gabel K, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, et al. Differential Effects of Alternate-Day Fasting Versus Daily Calorie Restriction on Insulin Resistance. Obesity. 0(0). doi:10.1002/oby.22564
  7. DiNicolantonio JJ, McCarty M. Autophagy-induced degradation of Notch1, achieved through intermittent fasting, may promote beta cell neogenesis: implications for reversal of type 2 diabetes. Open Heart. 2019;6(1):e001028. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2019-001028
  8. Lichtash C, Fung J, Ostoich KC, Ramos M. Therapeutic use of intermittent fasting and ketogenic diet as an alternative treatment for type 2 diabetes in a normal weight woman: a 14-month case study. BMJ Case Reports CP. 2020;13(7):e234223. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2019-234223
  9. Zubrzycki A, Cierpka-Kmiec K, Kmiec Z, Wronska A. The role of low-calorie diets and intermittent fasting in the treatment of obesity and type-2 diabetes. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018;69(5). doi:10.26402/jpp.2018.5.02 

Type 1 Diabetes

  1. Schmidt S, Christensen MB, Serifovski N, et al. Low versus High Carbohydrate Diet in Type 1 Diabetes: A 12-week randomized open-label crossover study. Diabetes Obes Metab. March 2019. doi:10.1111/dom.13725
  2. Bolla AM, Caretto A, Laurenzi A, Scavini M, Piemonti L. Low-Carb and Ketogenic Diets in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients. 2019;11(5):962. doi:10.3390/nu11050962   PDF 
  3. Feinman RD, Pogozelski WK, Astrup A, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management: critical review and evidence base. Nutrition. 2015;31(1):1-13. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2014.06.011
  4. Al‐Sari N, Schmidt S, Suvitaival T, et al. Changes in the lipidome in type 1 diabetes following low carbohydrate diet: Post-hoc analysis of a randomized crossover trial. Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism. n/a(n/a):e00213. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/edm2.213
  5. Ranjan A, Schmidt S, Damm-Frydenberg C, Holst JJ, Madsbad S, Nørgaard K. Short-term effects of a low carbohydrate diet on glycaemic variables and cardiovascular risk markers in patients with type 1 diabetes: A randomized open-label crossover trial. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2017;19(10):1479-1484. doi:10.1111/dom.12953 ABSTRACT 
  6. Dimosthenopoulos C, Liatis S, Kourpas E, et al. The beneficial short-term effects of a high-protein/low-carbohydrate diet on glycemic control assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. Published online March 26, 2021. doi:10.1111/dom.14390 ABSTRACT
  7. Krebs JD, Parry Strong A, Cresswell P, Reynolds AN, Hanna A, Haeusler S. A randomised trial of the feasibility of a low carbohydrate diet vs standard carbohydrate counting in adults with type 1 diabetes taking body weight into account. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):78-84. doi:10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.11  ABSTRACT
  8. Lehmann V, Zueger T, Zeder A, et al. Lower Daily Carbohydrate Intake Is Associated With Improved Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Using a Hybrid Closed-Loop System. Diabetes Care. Published online September 29, 2020. doi:10.2337/dc20-1560 ABSTRACT
  9. Ahola AJ, Forsblom C, Harjutsalo V, Groop P-H, FinnDiane Study Group. Dietary carbohydrate intake and cardio-metabolic risk factors in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. August 2019:107818. doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2019.107818 PDF
  10. Nielsen JV, Gando C, Joensson E, Paulsson C. Low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes, long-term improvement and adherence: A clinical audit. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2012;4(1):23. doi:10.1186/1758-5996-4-23
  11. Wong K, Raffray M, Roy-Fleming A, Blunden S, Brazeau AS. The ketogenic diet seen as a normal way of eating by adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study. Canadian Journal of Diabetes. Published online June 27, 2020. doi:10.1016/j.jcjd.2020.06.016 ABSTRACT
  12. Lehmann V, Zueger T, Zeder A, et al. Lower Daily Carbohydrate Intake Is Associated With Improved Glycemic Control in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes Using a Hybrid Closed-Loop System. Diabetes Care. Published online September 29, 2020. doi:10.2337/dc20-1560
  13. Berger B, Jenetzky E, Köblös D, et al. Seven-day fasting as a multimodal complex intervention for adults with type 1 diabetes: Feasibility, benefit and safety in a controlled pilot study. Nutrition. 2021;86:111169. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2021.111169    PDF
  14. Nielsen JV, Jönsson E, Ivarsson A. A low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes: clinical experience–a brief report. Ups J Med Sci. 2005;110(3):267-273. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3109/2000-1967-074?needAccess=true
  15. Eiswirth M, Clark E, Diamond M. Low carbohydrate diet and improved glycaemic control in a patient with type one diabetes. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep. 2018;2018. doi:10.1530/EDM-18-0002
  16. Tóth C, Clemens Z. Type 1 diabetes mellitus successfully managed with the paleolithic ketogenic diet. International Journal of Case Reports and Images. 2014;5. doi:10.5348/ijcri-2014124-CR-10435
  17. Bouillet B, Rouland A, Petit JM, Vergès B. A low-carbohydrate high-fat diet initiated promptly after diagnosis provides clinical remission in three patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. July 2019. doi:10.1016/j.diabet.2019.06.004 NO ABSTRACT

Children

  1. Lennerz BS, Barton A, Bernstein RK, et al. Management of Type 1 Diabetes With a Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet. Pediatrics. 2018;141(6). doi:10.1542/peds.2017-3349 
  2. Runge C, Lee JM. How Low Can You Go? Does Lower Carb Translate to Lower Glucose? Pediatrics. 2018;141(6). doi:10.1542/peds.2018-0957
  3. Rydin AA, Spiegel G, Frohnert BI, et al. Medical Management of Children with Type 1 Diabetes on Low Carbohydrate or Ketogenic Diets. Pediatric Diabetes. n/a(n/a). doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13179
  4. Tóth C, Clemens Z. A child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) successfully treated with the Paleolithic ketogenic diet: A 19-month insulin-freedom. IJCRI. 2015;6(12):752. doi:10.5348/ijcri-2015121-CR-10582
  5. de Souza Bosco Paiva C, Lima MHM. Introducing a very low carbohydrate diet for a child with type 1 diabetes. Br J Nurs. 2019;28(15):1015-1019. doi:10.12968/bjon.2019.28.15.1015 ABSTRACT

Media Links

  1. Dr Carrie Diulus- You Tube – Low Carb (Vegan Keto) Diet Results for Type 1 Diabetes. 2018
  2. Andrew Koutnik – You Tube – Low Carbohydrate Diet for Type-1 Diabetes? Patient and Research Perspective. 2019
  3. Dr. Andrew Koutnik, PhD – Rethinking Nutrition for Type 1 Diabetes. 2020. 
  4. Dr Olivia Rimington – You tube – Low Carb Nutrition for T1DM. 2019

LADA (Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults)

  1. Frazier AR. Correct Diabetes Diagnosis and Treatment Allows Sailor to Remain on Active Duty. Mil Med. 2020;185(9-10):e1843-e1846. doi:10.1093/milmed/usaa012

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

  1. Gjuladin-Hellon T, Davies IG, Penson P, Amiri Baghbadorani R. Effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in overweight and obese adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Rev. 2019;77(3):161-180. doi:10.1093/nutrit/nuy049
  2. Fechner E, Smeets ETHC, Schrauwen P, Mensink RP. The Effects of Different Degrees of Carbohydrate Restriction and Carbohydrate Replacement on Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Humans—A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2020;12(4):991. doi:10.3390/nu12040991
  3. Dong T, Guo M, Zhang P, Sun G, Chen B. The effects of low-carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors: A meta-analysis. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(1):e0225348. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0225348
  4. Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, et al. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(3):285-293. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.3.285
  5. Chawla S, Tessarolo Silva F, Amaral Medeiros S, Mekary RA, Radenkovic D. The Effect of Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate Diets on Weight Loss and Lipid Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2020;12(12):3774. doi:10.3390/nu12123774
  6. Zhu Y, Bo Y, Liu Y. Dietary total fat, fatty acids intake, and risk of cardiovascular disease: a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2019;18(1):91. doi:10.1186/s12944-019-1035-2
  7. Harcombe Z, Baker JS, Cooper SM, et al. Evidence from randomised controlled trials did not support the introduction of dietary fat guidelines in 1977 and 1983: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Heart. 2015;2(1):e000196. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2014-000196 
  8. Santos FL, Esteves SS, da Costa Pereira A, Yancy WS, Nunes JPL. Systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials of the effects of low carbohydrate diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Obes Rev. 2012;13(11):1048-1066. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2012.01021.x ABSTRACT 
  9. Santos FS dos, Dias M da S, Mintem GC, Oliveira IO de, Gigante DP. Food processing and cardiometabolic risk factors: a systematic review. Rev saúde pública. 2020;54:70-70. doi:10.11606/s1518-8787.2020054001704

Other Reviews

  1. Ravnskov U, de Lorgeril M, Diamond DM, et al. LDL-C does not cause cardiovascular disease: a comprehensive review of the current literature. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2018;11(10):959-970. doi:10.1080/17512433.2018.1519391
  2. Malhotra A, DiNicolantonio JJ, Capewell S. It is time to stop counting calories, and time instead to promote dietary changes that substantially and rapidly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Open Heart. 2015;2(1). doi:10.1136/openhrt-2015-000273
  3. Kirkpatrick CF, Bolick JP, Kris-Etherton PM, et al. Review of current evidence and clinical recommendations on the effects of low-carbohydrate and very-low-carbohydrate (including ketogenic) diets for the management of body weight and other cardiometabolic risk factors: A scientific statement from the National Lipid Association Nutrition and Lifestyle Task Force. Journal of Clinical Lipidology. September 2019. doi:10.1016/j.jacl.2019.08.003
  4. Butler T, Kerley CP, Altieri N, et al. Optimum nutritional strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention and rehabilitation (BACPR). Heart. Published online February 25, 2020. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2019-315499 
  5. Diamond DM, Alabdulgader AA, Lorgeril M de, et al. Dietary Recommendations for Familial Hypercholesterolaemia: an Evidence-Free Zone. BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine. Published online July 5, 2020. doi:10.1136/bmjebm-2020-111412
  6. Astrup A, Magkos F, Bier DM, et al. Saturated Fats and Health: A Reassessment and Proposal for Food-based Recommendations: JACC State-of -the-Art Review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Published online June 17, 2020. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2020.05.077
  7. Parks EJ. Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate on Triglyceride Metabolism in Humans. J Nutr. 2001;131(10):2772S-2774S. doi:10.1093/jn/131.10.2772S
  8. Nasser S, Vialichka V, Biesiekierska M, Balcerczyk A, Pirola L. Effects of ketogenic diet and ketone bodies on the cardiovascular system: Concentration matters. World Journal of Diabetes. 2020;11(12):584-595. doi:10.4239/wjd.v11.i12.584
  9. Aronica L, Volek J, Poff A, D’agostino DP. Genetic variants for personalised management of very low carbohydrate ketogenic diets. BMJNPH. Published online December 12, 2020:bmjnph-2020-000167. doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000167
  10. Murray SW, McKelvey S, Heseltine TD, et al. The “discordant doppelganger dilemma”: SGLT2i mimics therapeutic carbohydrate restriction – food choice first over pharma? Journal of Human Hypertension. Published online February 9, 2021:1-8. doi:10.1038/s41371-021-00482-y

Trials/Studies

  1. Mason AE, Saslow LR, Moran PJ, et al. Lipid findings from the Diabetes Education to Lower Insulin, Sugars, and Hunger (DELISH) Study. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2019;16(1):58. doi:10.1186/s12986-019-0383-2
  2. Harvey CJDC, Schofield GM, Zinn C, Thornley SJ, Crofts C, Merien FLR. Low-carbohydrate diets differing in carbohydrate restriction improve cardiometabolic and anthropometric markers in healthy adults: A randomised clinical trial. PeerJ. 2019;7:e6273. doi:10.7717/peerj.6273
  3. Petrisko M, Kloss R, Bradley P, et al. Biochemical, Anthropometric, and Physiological Responses to Carbohydrate-Restricted Diets Versus a Low-Fat Diet in Obese Adults: A Randomized Crossover Trial. J Med Food. Published online March 2, 2020. doi:10.1089/jmf.2019.0266
  4. Bhanpuri NH, Hallberg SJ, Williams PT, et al. Cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to a type 2 diabetes care model including nutritional ketosis induced by sustained carbohydrate restriction at 1 year: an open label, non-randomized, controlled study. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2018;17(1):56. doi:10.1186/s12933-018-0698-8
  5. Athinarayanan SJ, Hallberg SJ, McKenzie AL, et al. Impact of a 2-year trial of nutritional ketosis on indices of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovascular Diabetology. 2020;19(1):208. doi:10.1186/s12933-020-01178-2
  6. Yancy WS, Olsen MK, Guyton JR, Bakst RP, Westman EC. A Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet versus a Low-Fat Diet To Treat Obesity and Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2004;140(10):769. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-10-200405180-00006
  7. Volek JS, Sharman MJ. Cardiovascular and Hormonal Aspects of Very-Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets. Obesity Research. 2004;12(S11):115S-123S. doi:10.1038/oby.2004.276
  8. Forsythe CE, Phinney SD, Feinman RD, et al. Limited effect of dietary saturated fat on plasma saturated fat in the context of a low carbohydrate diet. Lipids. 2010;45(10):947-962. doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3467-3
  9. Dashti HM, Mathew TC, Hussein T, et al. Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2004;9(3):200-205. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2716748/ 
  10. Ballard KD, Quann EE, Kupchak BR, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins. Nutr Res. 2013;33(11):905-912. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2013.07.022 ABSTRACT
  11. Creighton BC, Hyde PN, Maresh CM, Kraemer WJ, Phinney SD, Volek JS. Paradox of hypercholesterolaemia in highly trained, keto-adapted athletes. BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med. 2018;4(1):e000429. doi:10.1136/bmjsem-2018-000429 
  12. Wood RJ, Volek JS, Davis SR, Dell’Ova C, Fernandez ML. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on emerging plasma markers for cardiovascular disease. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2006;3:19. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-19
  13. Pergola* GD, Zupo R, Lampignano L, et al. Effects of a Low Carb Diet and Whey Proteins on Anthropometric, Hematochemical, and Cardiovascular Parameters in Subjects with Obesity. Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders – Drug Targets. Published November 30, 2020. doi: 10.2174/1871530320666200610143724
  14. Waldman HS, Smith JW, Lamberth J, et al. A 28-Day Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet Improves Markers of Cardiovascular Disease in Professional Firefighters. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2019;Publish Ahead of Print. doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003749
  15. Sharman MJ, Kraemer WJ, Love DM, et al. A Ketogenic Diet Favorably Affects Serum Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal-Weight Men. J Nutr. 2002;132(7):1879-1885. doi:10.1093/jn/132.7.1879
  16. Pérez-Guisado J, Muñoz-Serrano A, Alonso-Moraga Á. Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean diet: a healthy cardiovascular diet for weight loss. Nutrition Journal. 2008;7(1):30. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-30

Case Studies

  1. Das S, McCreary J, Shamim S, Kalayjian T. Reversal of severe hypertriglyceridemia with intermittent fasting and a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet: a case series. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. Published online July 27, 2020. doi:10.1097/MED.0000000000000566
  2. Norwitz NG, Loh V. A Standard Lipid Panel Is Insufficient for the Care of a Patient on a High-Fat, Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet. Front Med. 2020;7. doi:10.3389/fmed.2020.00097
  3. Scholl JG. Does a ketogenic diet lower a very high Lp(a)? A striking experiment in a male physician. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. Published online November 20, 2020:bmjnph-2020-000189. doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000189

Women

  1. Brehm BJ, Seeley RJ, Daniels SR, D’Alessio DA. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(4):1617-1623. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-021480
  2. Wekesa AL, Doyle LM, Fitzmaurice D, et al. Influence of a low-carbohydrate diet on endothelial microvesicles in overweight women. 2016. https://core.ac.uk/reader/74028323
  3. Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Gómez AL, Scheett TP, Kraemer WJ. An isoenergetic very low carbohydrate diet improves serum HDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio and postprandial pipemic responses compared with a low fat diet in normal weight, normolipidemic women. J Nutr. 2003;133(9):2756-2761. doi:10.1093/jn/133.9.2756 
  4. Hwang C-L, Ranieri C, Szczurek MR, et al. The Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Diet on Macrovascular and Microvascular Endothelial Function is Not Affected by the Provision of Caloric Restriction in Women with Obesity: A Randomized Study. Nutrients. 2020;12(6). doi:10.3390/nu12061649
  5. Halton TL, Willett WC, Liu S, et al. Low-Carbohydrate-Diet Score and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women. New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;355(19):1991-2002. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055317  
  6. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, Herrington DM. Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(5):1175-1184. doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.5.1175
  7. Jeppesen J, Schaaf P, Jones C, Zhou MY, Chen YD, Reaven GM. Effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets on risk factors for ischemic heart disease in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(4):1027-1033. doi:10.1093/ajcn/65.4.1027

Hypertension

Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

  1. Evans CE, Greenwood DC, Threapleton DE, Gale CP, Cleghorn CL, Burley VJ. Glycemic index, glycemic load, and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2017;105(5):1176-1190. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.143685
  2. Yu Z, Nan F, Wang LY, Jiang H, Chen W, Jiang Y. Effects of high-protein diet on glycemic control, insulin resistance and blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clinical Nutrition. Published online August 15, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2019.08.008 
  3. Rebholz CM, Friedman EE, Powers LJ, Arroyave WD, He J, Kelly TN. Dietary Protein Intake and Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2012;176(suppl_7):S27-S43. doi:10.1093/aje/kws245

Trials/Studies

  1. Yancy WS, Westman EC, McDuffie JR, et al. A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs Orlistat Plus a Low-Fat Diet for Weight Loss. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(2):136. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2009.492 

  2. Chiu S, Bergeron N, Williams PT, Bray GA, Sutherland B, Krauss RM. Comparison of the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet and a higher-fat DASH diet on blood pressure and lipids and lipoproteins: a randomized controlled trial1–3. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2016;103(2):341-347. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.123281Unwin DJ, T

  3. obin SD, Murray SW, Delon C, Brady AJ. Substantial and Sustained Improvements in Blood Pressure, Weight and Lipid Profiles from a Carbohydrate Restricted Diet: An Observational Study of Insulin Resistant Patients in Primary Care. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019;16(15):2680. doi:10.3390/ijerph16152680

  4. Pérez-Guisado J, Muñoz-Serrano A. A Pilot Study of the Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet: An Effective Therapy for the Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011;14(7-8):681-687. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.0137
  5. Walker L, Smith N, Delon C. Weight loss, hypertension and mental well-being improvements during COVID-19 with a multicomponent health promotion programme on Zoom: a service evaluation in primary care. BMJ Nutrition, Prevention & Health. Published online February 13, 2021:bmjnph. doi:10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000219   PDF
  6. Kim D, Roberts C, McKenzie A, George MP. Nutritional ketosis to treat pulmonary hypertension associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome: a case report. Pulm Circ. 2021;11(1):2045894021991426. doi:10.1177/2045894021991426 
  7. Ballard KD, Quann EE, Kupchak BR, et al. Dietary carbohydrate restriction improves insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, microvascular function, and cellular adhesion markers in individuals taking statins. Nutr Res. 2013;33(11):905-912. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2013.07.022 ABSTRACT

Association Studies

  1. Scaranni P de O da S, Cardoso L de O, Chor D, et al. Ultra-processed foods, changes in blood pressure, and incidence of hypertension: results of Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Public Health Nutrition. Published online undefined/ed:1-22. doi:10.1017/S136898002100094X
  2. He D, Sun N, Xiong S, Qiao Y, Ke C, Shen Y. Association between the proportions of carbohydrate and fat intake and hypertension risk: findings from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Journal of Hypertension. 2021;Publish Ahead of Print. doi:10.1097/HJH.0000000000002803

Fasting

  1. Maifeld A, Bartolomaeus H, Löber U, et al. Fasting alters the gut microbiome reducing blood pressure and body weight in metabolic syndrome patients. Nature Communications. 2021;12(1):1970. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22097-0 
  2. Grundler F, Mesnage R, Michalsen A, Wilhelmi de Toledo F. Blood Pressure Changes in 1610 Subjects With and Without Antihypertensive Medication During Long‐Term Fasting. J Am Heart Assoc. 2020;9(23). doi:10.1161/JAHA.120.018649

Mechanisms

  1. da Silva AA, do Carmo JM, Li X, Wang Z, Mouton AJ, Hall JE. Role of Hyperinsulinemia and Insulin Resistance in Hypertension: Metabolic Syndrome Revisited. Can J Cardiol. 2020;36(5):671-682. doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2020.02.066 
  2. Yanai H, Tomono Y, Ito K, Furutani N, Yoshida H, Tada N. The underlying mechanisms for development of hypertension in the metabolic syndrome. Nutrition Journal. 2008;7(1):10. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-7-10

Liver Function

Reviews

  1. Watanabe M, Tozzi R, Risi R, et al. Beneficial effects of the ketogenic diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review of the literature. Obesity Reviews. n/a(n/a). doi:10.1111/obr.13024
  2. Worm N. Beyond Body Weight-Loss: Dietary Strategies Targeting Intrahepatic Fat in NAFLD. Nutrients. 2020;12(5):1316. doi:10.3390/nu12051316
  3. Schugar RC, Crawford PA. Low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets, glucose homeostasis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012;15(4):374-380. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e3283547157 PDF
  4. Parra-Vargas M, Rodriguez-Echevarria R, Jimenez-Chillaron JC. Nutritional Approaches for the Management of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Evidence-Based Review. Nutrients. 2020;12(12):3860. doi:10.3390/nu12123860
  5. El-Agroudy NN, Kurzbach A, Rodionov RN, et al. Are Lifestyle Therapies Effective for NAFLD Treatment? Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2019;0(0). doi:10.1016/j.tem.2019.07.013
  6. Rosa SC da S, Nayak N, Caymo AM, Gordon JW. Mechanisms of muscle insulin resistance and the cross-talk with liver and adipose tissue. Physiological Reports. 2020;8(19):e14607. doi:10.14814/phy2.14607
  7. Chakravarthy MV, Neuschwander‐Tetri BA. The metabolic basis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2020;3(4). doi:10.1002/edm2.112

Trials/Studies

  1. Holmer M, Lindqvist C, Petersson S, et al. Treatment of NAFLD with intermittent calorie restriction or low-carb high-fat diet – a randomized controlled trial. JHEP Reports. Published online February 17, 2021:100256. doi:10.1016/j.jhepr.2021.100256
  2. Gepner Y, Shelef I, Komy O, et al. The Beneficial effects of Mediterranean diet over low-fat diet may be mediated by decreasing hepatic fat content. J Hepatol. May 2019. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2019.04.013
  3. Vilar-Gomez E, Athinarayanan SJ, Adams RN, et al. Post hoc analyses of surrogate markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fibrosis in patients with type 2 diabetes in a digitally supported continuous care intervention: an open-label, non-randomised controlled study. BMJ Open. 2019;9(2):e023597. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023597 
  4. Skytte MJ, Samkani A, Petersen AD, et al. A carbohydrate-reduced high-protein diet improves HbA1c and liver fat content in weight stable participants with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia. July 2019. doi:10.1007/s00125-019-4956-4 
  5. Crabtree CD, Kackley ML, Buga A, et al. Comparison of Ketogenic Diets with and without Ketone Salts versus a Low-Fat Diet: Liver Fat Responses in Overweight Adults. Nutrients. 2021;13(3):966. doi:10.3390/nu13030966
  6. Luukkonen PK, Dufour S, Lyu K, et al. Effect of a ketogenic diet on hepatic steatosis and hepatic mitochondrial metabolism in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117(13):7347-7354. doi:10.1073/pnas.1922344117
  7. Belopolsky Y, Khan MQ, Sonnenberg A, Davidson DJ, Fimmel CJ. Ketogenic, Hypocaloric Diet Improves Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. J Transl Int Med. 2020;8(1):26-31. doi:10.2478/jtim-2020-0005
  8. Unwin D, Cuthbertson D, Feinman R, Sprung V. A pilot study to explore the role of a low-carbohydrate intervention to improve GGT levels and HbA 1 c. Diabesity in Practice Vol 4 No 3 2015.   PDF
  9. Pérez-Guisado J, Muñoz-Serrano A. The Effect of the Spanish Ketogenic Mediterranean Diet on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011;14(7-8):677-680. doi:10.1089/jmf.2011.0075   PDF
  10. Mardinoglu A, Wu H, Bjornson E, et al. An Integrated Understanding of the Rapid Metabolic Benefits of a Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet on Hepatic Steatosis in Humans. Cell Metab. 2018;27(3):559-571.e5. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2018.01.005 
  11. Tendler D, Lin S, Yancy WS, et al. The Effect of a Low-Carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Pilot Study. Dig Dis Sci. 2007;52(2):589-593. doi:10.1007/s10620-006-9433-5 ABSTRACT 
  12. Cunha GM, Correa de Mello LL, Hasenstab KA, et al. MRI estimated changes in visceral adipose tissue and liver fat fraction in patients with obesity during a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet compared to a standard low-calorie diet. Clin Radiol. Published online March 20, 2020. doi:10.1016/j.crad.2020.02.014 ABSTRACT
  13. Browning JD, Baker JA, Rogers T, Davis J, Satapati S, Burgess SC. Short-term weight loss and hepatic triglyceride reduction: evidence of a metabolic advantage with dietary carbohydrate restriction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(5):1048-1052. doi:10.3945/ajcn.110.007674
  14. Watanabe M, Risi R, Camajani E, et al. Baseline HOMA IR and Circulating FGF21 Levels Predict NAFLD Improvement in Patients Undergoing a Low Carbohydrate Dietary Intervention for Weight Loss: A Prospective Observational Pilot Study. Nutrients. 2020;12(7):2141. doi:10.3390/nu12072141

Women

  1. Chen J, Huang Y, Xie H, et al. Impact of a low-carbohydrate and high-fiber diet on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2020;29(3):483-490. doi:10.6133/apjcn.202009_29(3).0006
  2. D’Abbondanza M, Ministrini S, Pucci G, et al. Very Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Severe Obesity and Associated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Role of Sex Differences. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):2748. doi:10.3390/nu12092748

Adolescents/Children

  1. Katsagoni CN, Papachristou E, Sidossis A, Sidossis L. Effects of Dietary and Lifestyle Interventions on Liver, Clinical and Metabolic Parameters in Children and Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):2864. doi:10.3390/nu12092864
  2. Schwimmer JB, Ugalde-Nicalo P, Welsh JA, et al. Effect of a Low Free Sugar Diet vs Usual Diet on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adolescent Boys: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;321(3):256-265. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.20579 
  3. Mandala A, Janssen RC, Palle S, Short KR, Friedman JE. Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Nutritional Origins and Potential Molecular Mechanisms. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):3166. doi:10.3390/nu12103166
  4. Schwarz J-M, Noworolski SM, Erkin-Cakmak A, et al. Effects of Dietary Fructose Restriction on Liver Fat, De Novo Lipogenesis, and Insulin Kinetics in Children with Obesity. Gastroenterology. 2017;153(3):743-752. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.05.043
  5. Goss AM, Dowla S, Pendergrass M, et al. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on hepatic lipid content in adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A pilot, randomized trial. Pediatr Obes. Published online March 4, 2020:e12630. doi:10.1111/ijpo.12630 ABSTRACT

The Role of Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSBs)

  1. Wijarnpreecha K, Thongprayoon C, Edmonds PJ, Cheungpasitporn W. Associations of sugar- and artificially sweetened soda with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine. 2016;109(7):461-466. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcv172
  2. Chen H, Wang J, Li Z, et al. Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Has a Dose-Dependent Effect on the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(12). doi:10.3390/ijerph16122192
  3. Nier A, Brandt A, Conzelmann IB, Özel Y, Bergheim I. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Overweight Children: Role of Fructose Intake and Dietary Pattern. Nutrients. 2018;10(9). doi:10.3390/nu10091329
  4. Ma J, Fox CS, Jacques PF, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage, diet soda, and fatty liver disease in the Framingham Heart Study cohorts. J Hepatol. 2015;63(2):462-469. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2015.03.032
  5. Abdelmalek MF, Day C. Sugar sweetened beverages and fatty liver disease: Rising concern and call to action. Journal of Hepatology. 2015;63(2):306-308. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2015.05.021

Fasting and Liver Function

  1. Drinda S, Grundler F, Neumann T, et al. Effects of Periodic Fasting on Fatty Liver Index—A Prospective Observational Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2601. doi:10.3390/nu11112601

Kidney Function

  1. Oyabu C, Hashimoto Y, Fukuda T, et al. Impact of low-carbohydrate diet on renal function: a meta-analysis of over 1000 individuals from nine randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(4):632-638. doi:10.1017/S0007114516002178 
  2. Suyoto PST. Effect of low-carbohydrate diet on markers of renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2018;34(7):e3032. doi:10.1002/dmrr.3032 ABSTRACT
  3. A, Golan R, Harman-Boehm I, et al. Renal function following three distinct weight loss dietary strategies during 2 years of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(8):2225-2232. doi:10.2337/dc12-1846 
  4. Bruci A, Tuccinardi D, Tozzi R, et al. Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet: A Safe and Effective Tool for Weight Loss in Patients With Obesity and Mild Kidney Failure. Nutrients. 2020;12(2):333. doi:10.3390/nu12020333
  5. Nielsen JV, Westerlund P, Bygren P. A low-carbohydrate diet may prevent end-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes. A case report. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2006;3(1):23. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-3-23
  6. Friedman AN, Ogden LG, Foster GD, et al. Comparative effects of low-carbohydrate high-protein versus low-fat diets on the kidney. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;7(7):1103-1111. doi:10.2215/CJN.11741111 
  7. Brinkworth GD, Buckley JD, Noakes M, Clifton PM. Renal Function Following Long-Term Weight Loss in Individuals with Abdominal Obesity on a Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diet vs High-Carbohydrate Diet. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2010;110(4):633-638. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.12.016 ABSTRACT 
  8. Tay J, Thompson CH, Luscombe-Marsh ND, et al. Long-Term Effects of a Very Low Carbohydrate Compared With a High Carbohydrate Diet on Renal Function in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015;94(47):e2181. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000002181 ABSTRACT

Reproductive Health

General

  1. McGrice M, Porter J. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Fertility Hormones and Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Women: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2017;9(3). doi:10.3390/nu9030204
  2. Grieger JA, Grzeskowiak LE, Smithers LG, et al. Metabolic syndrome and time to pregnancy: a retrospective study of nulliparous women. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 2019;126(7):852-862. doi:10.1111/1471-0528.15647
  3. Hilali NG, Sak S, Incebiyik A, et al. Recurrent pregnancy loss and metabolic syndrome. Ginekologia Polska. 2020;91(6):320-323. doi:10.5603/GP.a2020.0063 PDF
  4. Noventa M, Quaranta M, Vitagliano A, et al. May Underdiagnosed Nutrition Imbalances Be Responsible for a Portion of So-Called Unexplained Infertility? From Diagnosis to Potential Treatment Options. Reprod Sci. 2016;23(6):812-822. doi:10.1177/1933719115620496 ABSTRACT
  5. Chavarro JE, Rich-Edwards JW, Rosner BA, Willett WC. A prospective study of dietary carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of ovulatory infertility. European journal of clinical nutrition. 2009;63(1):78. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602904
  6. Koga F, Kitagami S, Izumi A, et al. Relationship between nutrition and reproduction. Reproductive Medicine and Biology. n/a(n/a). doi:10.1002/rmb2.12332

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

  1. Zhang X, Zheng Y, Guo Y, Lai Z. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diet on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Int J Endocrinol. 2019;2019. doi:10.1155/2019/4386401
  2. Porchia LM, Hernandez-Garcia SC, Gonzalez-Mejia ME, López-Bayghen E. Diets with lower carbohydrate concentrations improve insulin sensitivity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. Published online March 6, 2020. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2020.03.010 ABSTRACT
  3. Li J, Bai W-P, Jiang B, et al. Ketogenic diet in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and liver dysfunction who are obese: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, controlled pilot trial. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. Published online January 18, 2021. doi:10.1111/jog.14650
  4. Mavropoulos JC, Yancy WS, Hepburn J, Westman EC. The effects of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet on the polycystic ovary syndrome: a pilot study. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2005;2:35. doi:10.1186/1743-7075-2-35 
  5. Paoli A, Mancin L, Giacona MC, Bianco A, Caprio M. Effects of a ketogenic diet in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2020;18(1):104. doi:10.1186/s12967-020-02277-0
  6. Douglas CC, Gower BA, Darnell BE, Ovalle F, Oster RA, Azziz R. Role of diet in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertility and Sterility. 2006;85(3):679-688. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2005.08.045 
  7. Phy JL, Pohlmeier AM, Cooper JA, et al. Low Starch/Low Dairy Diet Results in Successful Treatment of Obesity and Co-Morbidities Linked to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). J Obes Weight Loss Ther. 2015;5(2). doi:10.4172/2165-7904.1000259 
  8. Pohlmeier AM, Phy JL, Watkins P, et al. Effect of a Low Starch/Low Dairy Diet on Fat Oxidation in Overweight and Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39(11):1237-1244. doi:10.1139/apnm-2014-0073
  9. Moran LJ, Noakes M, Clifton PM, Tomlinson L, Norman RJ. Dietary Composition in Restoring Reproductive and Metabolic Physiology in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(2):812-819. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-020815 
  10. Barrea L, Marzullo P, Muscogiuri G, et al. Source and amount of carbohydrate in the diet and inflammation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Nutr Res Rev. 2018;31(2):291-301. doi:10.1017/S0954422418000136
  11. Pateguana NB, Janes A. The contribution of hyperinsulinemia to the hyperandrogenism of polycystic ovary syndrome. Journal of Insulin Resistance. 2019;4(1):3. doi:10.4102/jir.v4i1.50
  12. Gower BA, Chandler-Laney PC, Ovalle F, et al. Favourable metabolic effects of a eucaloric lower-carbohydrate diet in women with PCOS. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2013;79(4):550-557. doi:10.1111/cen.12175 
  13. Galletly C, Moran L, Noakes M, Clifton P, Tomlinson L, Norman R. Psychological benefits of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome—A pilot study. Appetite. 2007;49(3):590-593. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2007.03.222 ABSTRACT 
  14. Frary JMC, Bjerre KP, Glintborg D, Ravn P. The effect of dietary carbohydrates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review. Minerva Endocrinol. 2016;41(1):57-69. PMID: 24914605 ABSTRACT
  15. Eight-hour Time-restricted Feeding Improves Endocrine and Metabolic Profiles in Women With Anovulatory Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Published online February 4, 2021. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-169057/v1
  16. Chiofalo B, Laganà AS, Palmara V, et al. Fasting as possible complementary approach for polycystic ovary syndrome: Hope or hype? Medical Hypotheses. 2017;105:1-3. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2017.06.013  ABSTRACT
  17. Iolanda BM, Maria CA, Popa A. PCOS AND INSULIN RESISTANCE: THE ROLE OF KETOGENIC DIET. :8. Pharmacology Online. Special issue; 2020; vol.3; 214-221 Review.   PDF

Media Links

  1. Dr. Tim O’Dowd – YouTube – PCOS and Insulin Resistance: A Lifetime of Opportunities 
  2. Dr. Nadia Pateguana & Dr. Jason Fung – YouTube – Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Male Reproductive Health

  1. Maresch CC, Stute DC, Alves MG, Oliveira PF, de Kretser DM, Linn T. Diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male reproductive function: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2018;24(1):86-105. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmx033
  2. Corona G, Rastrelli G, Monami M, et al. Body weight loss reverts obesity-associated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Endocrinology. 2013;168(6):829-843. doi:10.1530/EJE-12-0955
  3. Moran LJ, Brinkworth GD, Martin S, et al. Long-Term Effects of a Randomised Controlled Trial Comparing High Protein or High Carbohydrate Weight Loss Diets on Testosterone, SHBG, Erectile and Urinary Function in Overweight and Obese Men. PLoS One. 2016;11(9). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161297
  4. La Vignera S, Cannarella R, Galvano F, et al. The ketogenic diet corrects metabolic hypogonadism and preserves pancreatic ß-cell function in overweight/obese men: a single-arm uncontrolled study. Endocrine. Published online October 15, 2020. doi:10.1007/s12020-020-02518-8
  5. Mongioì LM, Cimino L, Condorelli RA, et al. Effectiveness of a Very Low Calorie Ketogenic Diet on Testicular Function in Overweight/Obese Men. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):2967. doi:10.3390/nu12102967
  6. Almsaid H, Muhsin H. The effect of Ketogenic diet on vitamin D3 and testosterone hormone in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Current Issues in Pharmacy and Medical Sciences. 2021;33:202-205. doi:10.2478/cipms-2020-0033
  7. Martins AD, Majzoub A, Agawal A. Metabolic Syndrome and Male Fertility. The World Journal of Men’s Health. 2019;37(2):113. doi:10.5534/wjmh.180055
  8. Leisegang K, Henkel R, Agarwal A. Obesity and metabolic syndrome associated systemic inflammation and the impact on the male reproductive system. Am J Reprod Immunol. Published online August 2, 2019. doi:10.1111/aji.13178
  9. Saleh AAEW, Amin EM, Elfallah AA, Hamed AM. Insulin resistance and idiopathic infertility: A potential possible link. Andrologia. n/a(n/a):e13773. doi:10.1111/and.13773 ABSTRACT
  10. McPherson NO, Lane M. Male obesity and subfertility, is it really about increased adiposity? Asian J Androl. 2015;17(3):450-458. doi:10.4103/1008-682X.148076
  11. Esposito K, Ciotola M, Giugliano F, et al. Mediterranean diet improves erectile function in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. International Journal of Impotence Research. 2006;18(4):405-410. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901447
  12. Salas-Huetos A, Bulló M, Salas-Salvadó J. Dietary patterns, foods and nutrients in male fertility parameters and fecundability: a systematic review of observational studies. Hum Reprod Update. 2017;23(4):371-389. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmx006
  13. Oghbaei H, Fattahi A, Hamidian G, Sadigh-Eteghad S, Ziaee M, Mahmoudi J. A closer look at the role of insulin for the regulation of male reproductive function. General and Comparative Endocrinology. Published online October 2, 2020:113643. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2020.113643
  14. Letkiewicz S, Pilis K, Ślęzak A, et al. Eight Days of Water-Only Fasting Promotes Favorable Changes in the Functioning of the Urogenital System of Middle-Aged Healthy Men. Nutrients. 2021;13(1):113. doi:10.3390/nu13010113
  15. Renck A, Afonso TT, Risso PJ, Barbosa TE, Hallak J, Maria FCE. Semen quality improvement after weight loss by very low-calorie ketogenic dietary: A report of two cases. In: Endocrine Abstracts. Vol 70. Bioscientifica; 2020. doi:10.1530/endoabs.70.EP379

Pregnancy

  1. Moses RG, Luebcke M, Davis WS, et al. Effect of a low-glycemic-index diet during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;84(4):807-812. doi:10.1093/ajcn/84.4.807 
  2. Iii JFC. Maternal carbohydrate intake and pregnancy outcome. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2002;61(1):45-50. doi:10.1079/PNS2001129 
  3. Lavie M, Lavie I, Maslovitz S. Paleolithic diet during pregnancy-A potential beneficial effect on metabolic indices and birth weight. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2019;242:7-11. doi:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.08.013 ABSTRACT
  4. Yan W, Zhang Y, Wang L, et al. Maternal dietary glycaemic change during gestation influences insulin-related gene methylation in the placental tissue: a genome-wide methylation analysis. Genes Nutr. 2019;14. doi:10.1186/s12263-019-0634-x
  5. Zhao J, Hong X, Zhang H, et al. Pre-pregnancy maternal fasting plasma glucose levels in relation to time to pregnancy among the couples attempting first pregnancy. Hum Reprod. doi:10.1093/humrep/dez069
  6. Huang L, Shang L, Yang W, et al. High starchy food intake may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes: a nested case-control study in the Shaanxi province of Northwestern China. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2019;19(1):362. doi:10.1186/s12884-019-2524-z
  7. Casas R, Castro Barquero S, Estruch R. Impact of Sugary Food Consumption on Pregnancy: A Review. Nutrients. 2020;12(11):3574. doi:10.3390/nu12113574
  8. Hilali NG, Sak S, Incebiyik A, et al. Recurrent pregnancy loss and metabolic syndrome. Ginekologia Polska. 2020;91(6):320-323. doi:10.5603/GP.a2020.0063 PDF
  9. Aminianfar A, Soltani S, Hajianfar H, Azadbakht L, Shahshahan Z, Esmaillzadeh A. The association between dietary glycemic index and load and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2020;0(0). doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108469
  10. Azizi R, Soltani-Zangbar MS, Sheikhansari G, et al. Metabolic syndrome mediates inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss. J Reprod Immunol. 2019;133:18-26. doi:10.1016/j.jri.2019.05.001 ABSTRACT

Media Links

  1. Dr. Tim O’Dowd – Reproduction Nutrition – YouTube
  2. Lily Nichols – Is Low Carb Safe During Pregnancy? – YouTube

Gestational Diabetes

  1. Viana LV, Gross JL, Azevedo MJ. Dietary Intervention in Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials on Maternal and Newborn Outcomes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(12):3345-3355. doi:10.2337/dc14-1530
  2. S, Hernandez TL. Low-Carbohydrate Diets for Gestational Diabetes. Nutrients. 2019;11(8):1737. doi:10.3390/nu11081737
  3. Mulla WR. Carbohydrate Content in the GDM Diet: Two Views: View 2: Low-Carbohydrate Diets Should Remain the Initial Therapy for Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes Spectr. 2016;29(2):89-91. doi:10.2337/diaspect.29.2.89  
  4. Moreno-Castilla C, Hernandez M, Bergua M, et al. Low-Carbohydrate Diet for the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2013;36(8):2233-2238. doi:10.2337/dc12-2714
  5. Cypryk K, Kamińska P, Kosiński M, Lewiński MP-MA. A comparison of the effectiveness, tolerability and safety of high and low carbohydrate diets in women with gestational diabetes. Endokrynologia Polska. 2007;58(4):313-320. ISSN 2299-8306
  6. Moses RG, Barker M, Winter M, Petocz P, Brand-Miller JC. Can a Low–Glycemic Index Diet Reduce the Need for Insulin in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus? Diabetes Care. 2009;32(6):996. doi:10.2337/dc09-0007 
  7. Filardi T, Panimolle F, Crescioli C, Lenzi A, Morano S. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Impact of Carbohydrate Quality in Diet. Nutrients. 2019;11(7):1549. doi:10.3390/nu11071549
  8. Yu W, Wu N, Li L, OuYang H, Qian M, Shen H.A Review of Research Progress on Glycemic Variability and Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. doi:10.2147/DMSO.S261486
  9. Mahajan A, Donovan LE, Vallee R, Yamamoto JM. Evidenced-Based Nutrition for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Curr Diab Rep. 2019;19(10):94. doi:10.1007/s11892-019-1208-4 ABSTRACT
  10. Ali AM, Kunugi H. Intermittent Fasting, Dietary Modifications, and Exercise for the Control of Gestational Diabetes and Maternal Mood Dysregulation: A Review and a Case Report. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(24):9379. doi:10.3390/ijerph17249379
  11. Callahan ML, Schneider-Worthington CR, Martin SL, Gower BA, Catalano PM, Chandler-Laney P. Association of weight status and carbohydrate intake with gestational weight gain. Clin Obes. Published online April 9, 2021:e12455. doi:10.1111/cob.12455

Menopause

  1. Blomquist C, Alvehus M, Burén J, et al. Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity. Obesity. 2017;25(5):892-900. doi:10.1002/oby.21815
  2. Blomquist C, Chorell E, Ryberg M, et al. Decreased lipogenesis-promoting factors in adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with overweight on a Paleolithic-type diet. Eur J Nutr. 2018;57(8):2877-2886. doi:10.1007/s00394-017-1558-0
  3. Dormire S, Howharn C. The Effect of Dietary Intake on Hot Flashes in Menopausal Women. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2007;36(3):255-262. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.2007.00142.x
  4. Campillo-Sánchez F, Usategui-Martín R, Ruiz -de Temiño Á, et al. Relationship between Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), Trabecular Bone Score (TBS), and Three-Dimensional Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (3D-DXA) in Non-Diabetic Postmenopausal Women. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020;9(6):1732. doi:10.3390/jcm9061732
  5. Mozaffarian D, Rimm EB, Herrington DM. Dietary fats, carbohydrate, and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80(5):1175-1184. doi:10.1093/ajcn/80.5.1175
  6. Islamoglu AH, Garipagaoglu M, Bicer HS, Kurtulus D, Ozturk M, Gunes FE. The effects of dietary changes on bone markers in postmenopausal vertebral osteopenia. Clinical Nutrition. 2020;0(0). doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2020.04.001
  7. McPhee JC, Zinn C, Smith M. Exploring the acceptability of, and adherence to a carbohydrate-restricted diet as self-reported by women aged 40-55 years. J Holistic Performance NutritionTM. doi: 10.26712/230120181  PDF

Adolescents and Children

  1. Gow ML, Garnett SP, Baur LA, Lister NB. The Effectiveness of Different Diet Strategies to Reduce Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Youth. Nutrients. 2016;8(8). doi:10.3390/nu8080486
  2. Stefan M, Sharp M, Gheith R, Lowery R, Wilson J. The Effect of Exogenous Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Salt Supplementation on Metrics of Safety and Health in Adolescents. Nutrients. 2021;13(3):854. doi:10.3390/nu13030854
  3. Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski SM, et al. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(2):453-460. doi:10.1002/oby.21371
  4. Stoica RA, Diaconu CC, Rizzo M, et al. Weight loss programmes using low carbohydrate diets to control the cardiovascular risk in adolescents (Review). Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 2021;21(1):1-1. doi:10.3892/etm.2020.9522 PDF
  5. Jebeile H, Grunseit AM, Thomas M, Kelly T, Garnett SP, Gow ML. Low-carbohydrate interventions for adolescent obesity: Nutritional adequacy and guidance for clinical practice. Clinical Obesity. 2020;10(4):e12370. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/cob.12370 ABSTRACT
  6. Zeybek C, Celebi A, Aktuglu-Zeybek C, et al. The effect of low-carbohydrate diet on left ventricular diastolic function in obese children. Pediatr Int. 2010;52(2):218-223. doi:10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.02940.x ABSTRACT
  7. Rodrigue C, Iceta S, Bégin C. Food Addiction and Cognitive Functioning: What Happens in Adolescents? Nutrients. 2020;12(12):3633. doi:10.3390/nu12123633 (added for completeness – for more on this complex and emerging area see Food Addiction and Binge Eating Disorder Spectrum)

Obesity/Weight Loss

  1. Kirk S, Brehm B, Saelens BE, et al. Role of Carbohydrate Modification in Weight Management among Obese Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2012;161(2):320-327.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.01.041 PDF
  2. Sondike SB, Copperman N, Jacobson MS. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents. J Pediatr. 2003;142(3):253-258. doi:10.1067/mpd.2003.4   PDF
  3. Krebs NF, Gao D, Gralla J, Collins JS, Johnson SL. Efficacy and safety of a high protein, low carbohydrate diet for weight loss in severely obese adolescents. J Pediatr. 2010;157(2):252-258. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2010.02.010   PDF
  4. Pauley M, Mays C, Bailes JR, et al. Carbohydrate-Restricted Diet: A Successful Strategy for Short-Term Management in Youth with Severe Obesity—An Observational Study. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. Published online February 9, 2021. doi:10.1089/met.2020.0078
  5. Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski SM, et al. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(2):453-460. doi:10.1002/oby.21371
  6.  Stoica RA, Diaconu CC, Rizzo M, et al. Weight loss programmes using low carbohydrate diets to control the cardiovascular risk in adolescents (Review). Exp Ther Med. 2021;21(1). doi:10.3892/etm.2020.9522
  7. Cakmak HM, IlknurArslanoglu, Sungur MA, Bolu S. Clinical Picture at Attendance and Response to Flexible FamilyBased Low-Carb Life Style Change in Children With Obesity. IJCHN. 2021;10(1):9-16. doi:10.6000/1929-4247.2021.10.01.2     PDF

Liver Function

  1. Katsagoni CN, Papachristou E, Sidossis A, Sidossis L. Effects of Dietary and Lifestyle Interventions on Liver, Clinical and Metabolic Parameters in Children and Adolescents with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020;12(9):2864. doi:10.3390/nu12092864
  2. Schwimmer JB, Ugalde-Nicalo P, Welsh JA, et al. Effect of a Low Free Sugar Diet vs Usual Diet on Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Adolescent Boys: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019;321(3):256-265. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.20579 
  3. Mandala A, Janssen RC, Palle S, Short KR, Friedman JE. Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Nutritional Origins and Potential Molecular Mechanisms. Nutrients. 2020;12(10):3166. doi:10.3390/nu12103166
  4. Schwarz J-M, Noworolski SM, Erkin-Cakmak A, et al. Effects of Dietary Fructose Restriction on Liver Fat, De Novo Lipogenesis, and Insulin Kinetics in Children with Obesity. Gastroenterology. 2017;153(3):743-752. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2017.05.043
  5. Goss AM, Dowla S, Pendergrass M, et al. Effects of a carbohydrate-restricted diet on hepatic lipid content in adolescents with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A pilot, randomized trial. Pediatr Obes. Published online March 4, 2020:e12630. doi:10.1111/ijpo.12630 ABSTRACT

The Role of Sugar Sweetened Beverages (SSBs)

  1. Nier A, Brandt A, Conzelmann IB, Özel Y, Bergheim I. Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Overweight Children: Role of Fructose Intake and Dietary Pattern. Nutrients. 2018;10(9). doi:10.3390/nu10091329
  2. Abdelmalek MF, Day C. Sugar sweetened beverages and fatty liver disease: Rising concern and call to action. Journal of Hepatology. 2015;63(2):306-308. doi:10.1016/j.jhep.2015.05.021

Prader-Willi Syndrome

  1. Irizarry KA, Mager DR, Triador L, Muehlbauer MJ, Haqq AM, Freemark M. Hormonal and metabolic effects of carbohydrate restriction in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2019;90(4):553-561. doi:10.1111/cen.13933 PDF
  2. Felix G, Kossoff E, Barron B, Krekel C, Testa EG, Scheimann A. The modified Atkins diet in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2020;15(1):135. doi:10.1186/s13023-020-01412-w

Glycogen Storage Disease

  1. Mayorandan S, Meyer U, Hartmann H, Das AM. Glycogen storage disease type III: modified Atkins diet improves myopathy. 2014. https://core.ac.uk/reader/81156938
  2. Hoogeveen IJ, Boer F de, Boonstra WF, et al. Effects of acute nutritional ketosis during exercise in adults with glycogen storage disease type IIIa are phenotype-specific: An investigator-initiated, randomized, crossover study. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease. n/a(n/a). doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jimd.12302
  3. Bhattacharya K, Pontin J, Thompson S. Dietary Management of the Ketogenic Glycogen Storage Diseases. Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening. 2016;4:2326409816661359. doi:10.1177/2326409816661359 
  4. Marusic T, Zerjav Tansek M, Sirca Campa A, et al. Normalization of obstructive cardiomyopathy and improvement of hepatopathy on ketogenic diet in patient with glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IIIa. Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2020;24. doi:10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100628
  5. Similä ME, Auranen M, Piirilä PL. Beneficial Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Phosphofructokinase Deficiency (Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII). Front Neurol. 2020;11. doi:10.3389/fneur.2020.00057
  6. Hettiarachchi D, Lakmal K, Dissanayake VHW. A Concise Review of Ketogenic Dietary Interventions in the Management of Rare Diseases. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. doi:https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6685581

Type 1 Diabetes

  1. Lennerz BS, Barton A, Bernstein RK, et al. Management of Type 1 Diabetes With a Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet. Pediatrics. 2018;141(6). doi:10.1542/peds.2017-3349 
  2. Runge C, Lee JM. How Low Can You Go? Does Lower Carb Translate to Lower Glucose? Pediatrics. 2018;141(6). doi:10.1542/peds.2018-0957
  3. Rydin AA, Spiegel G, Frohnert BI, et al. Medical Management of Children with Type 1 Diabetes on Low Carbohydrate or Ketogenic Diets. Pediatric Diabetes. n/a(n/a). doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/pedi.13179
  4. Tóth C, Clemens Z. A child with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) successfully treated with the Paleolithic ketogenic diet: A 19-month insulin-freedom. IJCRI. 2015;6(12):752. doi:10.5348/ijcri-2015121-CR-10582
  5. de Souza Bosco Paiva C, Lima MHM. Introducing a very low carbohydrate diet for a child with type 1 diabetes. Br J Nurs. 2019;28(15):1015-1019. doi:10.12968/bjon.2019.28.15.1015 ABSTRACT

Infants and very young children

Updated 01 April 2021

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Latest Update: 01 April 2021